Make sure your exams are double spaced, in 12 point type, have 1 inch margins, and are in Times or New Times Roman font. Also see the syllabus for the extension and plagiarism policies.
Please make sure to upload a document (.doc or .docx) to SafeAssign. Please also name your document in the following way: Last name_First name_E2
The three questions are essay questions. You should consider each of the three questions to be essay questions and require an answer in ESSAY form. Make sure to answer each part of the question. That means that the multiple parts of each question should be included in one coherent essay. Your answers to the questions should exposit the relevant arguments from the text along with appropriate evidence and citations in coherent paragraph form. If you are asked to evaluate an argument, you should make sure to provide reasons for your evaluation. The difficulty will be in limiting what you include to those arguments relevant to answering the question. So, think about what’s really important, structure your answers appropriately, and be concise so that you can include everything necessary within the page limit.*
**Even though each of the three questions should be answered in essay form, introductions and conclusions are not required. Each of the three questions should be answered in an independent essay. Please do not combine the three questions into one essay.
**The exam is worth 250 points. You will see the point values for each question and for each part of each question.
1. What is the Cartesian interaction problem, and how does Leibniz’s understanding of substance help to address it? (15) Make sure to explain the nature of substances for Leibniz and his argument for why they must be this way. (20) What sort of problem does Leibniz’s view have? (Make sure to explain fully why this is a problem for Leibniz.) (10) How does Leibniz argue for a solution? (Make sure to include an explanation of necessary and contingent truths, the role of possible worlds, etc.) (25) Does Leibniz’s argument run into any trouble? Explain fully. (15) Which view (Descartes’ or Leibniz’s) do you think comes out better in the end? Why do you think so? Make sure to fully explain your answer. (5) Make sure your answer to the entire question is in a coherent ESSAY form (10). (100 points total)
2. What is Locke’s distinction between primary and secondary qualities? (15) (Make sure to provide arguments from the text that support the distinction.) (20) Why does Locke think that this distinction makes the case that material things exist, even though all we perceive are our own ideas? (5) How does Berkeley argue against this distinction? (10) On the basis of those arguments what is his conclusion concerning the existence of material objects? (5) Why does Berkeley also think that we can’t infer (reason to) the existence of material objects on the basis of our experience? (5) In the end why does Berkeley conclude that it’s a “downright contradiction” to claim that material objects exist? (20) Given both Locke’s and Berkeley’s arguments concerning the existence of material objects, what do you think we can justifiably conclude about the existence of material objects? Make sure to fully explain why you have drawn your conclusion. (10) Make sure your answer to the entire question is in a coherent ESSAY form (10). (100 points total)
3. What is Leibniz’s explanation for the relation between substances, such that there is an order and regularity in the world? (12) What is Locke’s explanation for the order and regularity of the world we experience? (12) What is Berkeley’s explanation for the order and regularity of the world we experience? (12) (In each case make sure to fully explain your answer.) Which explanation do you think is better justified by the evidence we have access to? (8) Make sure your answer to the entire question is in a coherent ESSAY form (6). (50 points total)
*Your exam should not exceed eight pages formatted according to the instructions above. The limit will be strictly enforced. Clear and concise writing is always evidence of good understanding.
*Also, the questions may not be equally complex and there may be some overlap.