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Instructions

  • Please answer ALL questions
  • You must adhere to the specified word limits. The word limits exclude examples, quotations and references.
  • Submit your answers through Moodle, as a single Word or PDF file. You will not be able to submit images in a separate file, but you may insert photographed images of your tree structures into the document. Make sure these images are clear by taking them in a well-lit room. Save them at moderate resolution so that you keep their file size down.
  • Please note that you are not permitted to submit any scanned or photographed text.
  • If your file size exceeds 40 MB, then you will need to reduce its size. There are many online options for this (e.g. https://smallpdf.com/compress-pdf).

(1) [no more than 500 words]

  1. Draw a tree for the following sentence: Which story did John tell Mary to publish.
  2. Show how theta-roles and cases are assigned in this structure. For each assignment relation, carefully indicate the assigner, what is assigned, and to which constituent it is assigned. Discuss any difficulties you encounter.
  3. Now draw a tree for the following sentence: John will read this book during his holiday in Greece. The attachment of the PP in Greece must express that reading of the book during John’s holiday will take place in Greece (and not that John’s holiday is in Greece).
  4. Motivate the internal structure of the VP in (1c) with at least three constituency tests.

Microsoft Word – exam 2021-2022.docx

(2) [no more than 500 words]

Carefully explain why each of the examples below is ungrammatical. Note that, where needed, indices are used to indicate the intended interpretation. Draw a tree or provide a labelled bracketing where that would help to clarify your answer.

  1. *John wanted to eat the steak1 raw1 and so eat the steak1 he did raw1.
  2. *It was believed her to be successful.
  3. *Karel heeft boos1 Marie1 gegroet. Charles has angry Mary greeted
  4. *Mary sang hoarse.
    (on the reading that Mary became hoarse as a result of singing)
  5. *John1 appears to him1 to be a fool.
  6. *John gave a book Mary. (on the reading where Mary received a book from John)

(3) [no more than 750 words]

  1. What is Exceptional Case Marking? Illustrate your answer with appropriate examples.
  2. What is Burzio’s Generalization? Give a comprehensive overview of the data supporting this generalization, illustrating your answers with examples and/or tree structures as appropriate.

Microsoft Word – exam 2021-2022.docx

(4) [no more than 750 words]

a. Movement operations apply in short steps. Discuss in detail how this claim is supported by

• the distribution of floating quantifiers
• the ungrammaticality of long wh-movement, as in *What do you

wonder where John bought?

  1. Explain how the following data support the view that A’-moved constituents undergo reconstruction.
    1. (i)  [This latest news] John thinks is/*are going to upset many people.
    2. (ii)  John said he would finish the book before midnight and, sure enough, [finish the book] he did before midnight.
    3. (iii)  Whom did Fred believe that Mary had seen in New York?
  2. What explains the contrasts in grammaticality between (iv) and (v), and between (vi) and (vii)?
  • John is taller than Jack is.
    *John is taller than Jack knows who is.
  • Mary bought a book she doesn’t really like.
    *Mary bought a book she is wondering when she will finally read.

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