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  1. 摘要
    本实验主要是利用PKI为学生和管理员生成一个证书,并利用PKI对文件进行加密和解密。 管理员账户通过解密获得不同操作系统上的学生账户发送的文件。之后,其他三个学生账户以 “级联 “的方式获取并发送密码给下一个学生账户。解密后的形式使彼此之间的文件传输更加私密,同时也更有保障。级联式 “密码破解式 “使多人之间的文件传输更加安全。
  2. 简介
    加密是一种保护数据和通信渠道免受黑客攻击的技术。加密是对信息进行编码的过程,以保护信息不被黑客看到。本实验通过使用加密技术来保护数据和敏感信息。数据保护对公司和组织来说是至关重要的。加密被用作组织网络中分层安全架构的一部分。实验用Kleopatra生成公钥和私钥,并作为一个证书机构。本实验使用公钥加密。公钥加密使用非对称加密算法,需要两把钥匙–一把分配给他人的公钥和一把必须保密且不会被共享的私钥。有一个公共密钥基础设施(PKI),允许人们从一个被称为证书机构的受信任的组织获得这些密钥。公钥密码学基础设施的应用之一是对人与人之间发送的信息进行加密。保护通信是用来提供保密性的。同时,实验中也使用数字签名。数字签名是公钥加密的一个应用,用于验证发件人。公开密钥加密和数字签名满足了CIA三个目标中的两个:保密性和完整性
    实验将在Windows客户端上生成学生和管理员证书,将其导出,然后将其导入Windows进行加密/解密。实验将使用Opera(免费电子邮件客户端软件)邮件来发送信息。
  3. 理论

公钥密码学又称非对称(密钥)密码学,属于通信技术下的网络安全二级学科,是指由一对相应的唯一密钥(即公钥和私钥)组成的加密方法。它解决了密钥分配和管理的问题,是商业密码学的核心。非堆叠加密是一对加密密钥和解密密钥,它们在数学上是相关的,用某个用户的密钥加密后得到的信息只能用该用户的解密密钥解密。如果其中一个是已知的,它不会计算另一个。因此,如果一对密钥中的一个被公开,它不会危及另一个的秘密性。公开的钥匙被称为公钥;非公开的钥匙是私钥。
Kleopatra是GnuPG的一个证书管理器和GUI。该软件存储你的OpenPGP证书和密钥。它可用于Windows和Linux。PGP是一种加密方法,可以让人们在网上私下交流。当你使用PGP发送信息时,信息在通过互联网之前会在你的设备上被转换为不可读的密码文本。只有收件人拥有密钥,可以在他们的设备上将文本转换为可读信息。
社会工程工具箱。攻击者可用于利用受害者的工具。
证书。用来验证公钥所有权的电子文件。证书包括关于钥匙的信息,关于其所有者身份的信息,以及验证了证书的实体的数字签名。
Opera。一个免费的浏览器和电子邮件客户端。

1. Abstract

This experiment is mainly using PKI to generate a certificate for a student and administrator and using PKI to encrypt and decrypt a file.  Administrator account obtained files sent from student accounts on different operating systems by decrypting them. Afterwards, three other student accounts were “cascaded” to obtain and send passwords to the next student account in a cascading manner. The decrypted form makes the transfer of files to and from each other more private and at the same time more protected. The cascading “password break-in type” makes the transfer of files between multiple people more secure.

2. Introduction

Encryption is a technique for protecting data and communication channels from hackers. Encryption is the process of encoding a message to protect it from being seen by hackers. This experiment protects data and sensitive information by using encryption. Data protection is essential for companies and organizations. Encryption is used as part of a layered security architecture in an organization’s network. Experiment with Kleopatra to generate public and private keys and act as a certificate authority. This experiment uses Public Key Encryption. Public key encryption uses an asymmetric encryption algorithm that requires two keys – a public key that is distributed to others and a private key that must be kept secret and will not be shared. There is a public key infrastructure (PKI) that allows people to obtain these keys from a trusted organization called a certificate authority. One of the applications of Public Key Cryptography Infrastructure is to encrypt messages sent from person to person. Protecting communications is used to provide confidentiality. Meanwhile, experiments also use Digital Signature. Digital signature is one application of the Public Key Encryption to authenticate the sender. Public key encryption and digital signatures satisfy two of three objectives of CIA: confidentiality and integrity

The experiment will generate student and administrator certificates on the Windows client, export them, and then import them into Windows for encryption/decryption. The experiment will use Opera (free email client software) mail to send the messages.

3. Theory

Public key cryptography, also called asymmetric (key) cryptography (, belongs to the secondary discipline of network security under communication technology, refers to the encryption method consisting of a corresponding pair of unique keys (i.e., public key and private key). It solves the problem of key distribution and management, and is the core of commercial cryptography. Non-stacked encryption is a pair of encryption key and decryption key, which are mathematically related, and the information obtained after encrypting with a certain user’s key can only be decrypted with that user’s decryption key. If one of them is known, it does not compute the other one. Therefore, if one of the pair of keys is made public, it does not jeopardize the secret nature of the other one. The public key is called the public key; the non-public key is the private key.

Kleopatra is a certificate manager and GUI for GnuPG. The software stores your OpenPGP certificates and keys. It is available for Windows and Linux. PGP is a cryptographic method that lets people communicate privately online. When you send a message using PGP, the message is converted into unreadable ciphertext on your device before it passes over the Internet. Only the recipient has the key to convert the text back into the readable message on their device.

Social Engineering Toolkit: Tools that can be used by an attacker to exploit victims

Certificate: An electronic document used to authenticate ownership of a public key. The certificate includes information about the key, information about its owner’s identity, and the digital signature of an entity that has verified the certificate.

Opera: A free browser and e-mail client.

4. Methods and Materials

For this experiment, the use of a computer with Google Chrome (preferably) was required in order to simulate a Windows 10 and Windows Server virtual machine. Inside Windows 10, the software Kleopatra was used to create a certificate for a “student” user with the email address “[email protected] with a resulting unique ID and fingerprint for said user. This certificate used a specific passphrase in order to be created/accessed. The certificate/public key was saved as a file and emailed to “[email protected] using Opera Mail.

Next, the person performing the experiment accessed the “administrator” user in Windows Server in order to open the email that was previously sent. The student’s public key was then saved onto Windows Server. Afterwards, Kleopatra was utilized again to create a certificate for the “administrator” user with the email “[email protected], and the student’s saved certificate/public key was imported into the software.

Still within Windows Server, the performer of the experiment created a text file that said, “The Secret is that I like Green Eggs and Ham.” This text file was encrypted for both the “student” and “administrator” using their certificates. The encrypted file was then sent from the administrator to the student’s email address. After this was done, the experiment performer switched over to Windows 10 in order to open the email under the “student” account. The encrypted file within the email was saved onto the desktop and decrypted using the student’s passphrase which resulted in the file being able to read normally.


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