#### 1 Tree structures (21points)

Draw X-bar tree structures for the following sentences. Note that some sentences are not English. In your trees, appropriately label any movement and note Case features.

• Jean croit que Paul n’a pas volé l’argent.

(French)

Jean believes that Paul has not stolen the.money “Jean believes that Paul has not stolen the money.”

• What seems to have been caught by the cats?
• Who did you shoot with a freball on the last race?

#### 2. Explaining ungrammaticality (10points)

• *[The professor]k accidentally assigned herk to [every group]m.
• *Iti does not appear shej to have [her student ID]k.
• *Theyi saw [every cat]i.
• (7) *Have youm fed [the cats]p [their breakfast]w.
• *Shei not has already left.

Part A (2 points): Consider the following data. How does this data support the N to D movement analysis given on the previous page in example (11)?

• a. *ha-beyt ha-mora

the-house the-teacher “the house of the teacher”

• *ha-maxazot sě kspir

the-plays Shakespeare

“the plays of Shakespeare”

• *ha-ba’al ha-rofa

the-husband the-doctor “the husband of the doctor”

Part B (4 points): Now let’s look at the position of adjectives, such as xadaš “new” in (13).  Pay close attention to what the adjective is modifying.  The m in the gloss stands for the “masculine” word class, and f stands for the “feminine” word class.

teacher.m class.f new.m

“a class’s new teacher” or “a new teacher of a class”

can never mean “*a new class’s teacher” or “*a teacher of a new class”

Explain how this data supports the analysis above. Draw a tree for (13) and use it as part of your explanation for why this data is consistent with the analysis. As a tip, be sure to talk about what moves and what doesn’t move. Feel free to use a separate page for your tree.

#### 3 Negative polarity items (NPIs) (10points)

Negative polarity items (NPIs) are lexical items that seem to depend on the presence of negation or a negation-like element in a sentence, as illustrated in the following examples (the NPI is underlined and negation bolded).

• a. *I wanted any cake.
• I did not want any cake.
• a. *I saw her ever.
• I did not see her ever.
• a. *I helped at all.
• I did not help at all.
• a. *He has gotten his T-card yet.
• He has not gotten his T-card yet.

Negation (of some form) has to precede an NPI in a sentence:

• a. No one saw anything.
• *Anything saw no one.
• a. Never have I ever eaten food of the foor.
• *Ever have I never eaten food of the foor.

However, a negative element simply preceding the NPI is not enough. This is demon- strated with the following sentences.

• *The show about nothing played on any channel.
• *The students who did not attend class understood the assignment at all.

What’s going on with NPIs? In order to understand the pattern, frst draw a tree for (20) (you don’t need to include the features; they’re not relevant here). Then, use the tree and the data above to give an analysis for when NPIs are licensed (in other words, allowed) in sentences. For this exercise, just treat nothing and any as determiners. (Hint: You might want to sketch basic trees for (18) just for yourself, to better see what goes wrong in the ungrammatical sentences.)

#### 4 Diferent kinds of passives (12points)

Impersonal passives (9 points): Some languages have what are called impersonal pas- sives as in the examples below. Consider the following data from Ukrainian and Kannada. Pay careful attention to the Case marking on the various nouns; acc means that the noun has accusative Case.

• Cerkvu bulo zbudovano v

1640 roc’i.

(Ukrainian)

church.acc was  built in 1640 year

“The church was built in the year 1640.”

• Rama-nannu kollalayitu.

Rama-acc kill.pass

“Rama was killed.”

First, briefy explain diference between impersonal passive constructions and the passive construction we discussed in English based on this data. Then, draw a tree for (22) and explain briefy in words how cerkvu “church” gets accusative Case and why it appears in the position it does. Be sure to mark Case features in the tree. Treat 1640 like it’s an adjective, and bulo “was” as a Voice head for impersonal passives (just like how English has a special passive be).

Pseudo-passives (3 points): A second type of passive that contrasts with the passive we looked at in class is what has been termed a pseudo-passive. Some examples of this are in (24). English speakers generally accept these, but if you do not, still complete this problem based on the judgements below.

• a. These issues have been talked about by linguists for a long time.
• This bridge was once slept under by a famous dog.
• This bed has been slept in by senators.
• That student is never spoken to by the teacher.

Briefy describe the diference between pseudo-passives and the regular English passive. (Hint: Think about where things move from!) Then, explain why the analysis of passives we developed in class cannot be extended to pseudo-passives.

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