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William believes that lack of access to medical care or education for some members of society, such as Hispanics, can be justified because minority groups are simply inferior to Whites in the society, so we don’t need to change anything about our system to accommodate them. Which of the following best describes William’s believes about other groups?

Social Dominance Orientation

Authoritarianism

Group threat

In-group bias

Which of the following statements is NOT correct regarding subjective and objective scales?

Subjective scales’ rating points can be differentially defined and adjusted

Objective scales’ units maintain a constant meaning across contexts

Perceivers’ response of “very competent” on subjective scales may meant different things for different participants

Objective scales are biased and are not as useful as subjective scales

Which of the following belief systems supports the notion that we have a fair system and people are exactly where they should be in our social hierarchy?

Essentialism

SDO

Ingroup preference

Both A and B

Which of the following is a problem of traditional (simultaneous) lineups?

People make relative judgments by comparing each suspect to each other

They require advanced techniques and knowledge to be administered properly

Innocent individuals are presented as fillers in traditional lineups

The person who committed the crime may or may not be in the lineup

Which of the following individuals is more likely to be selected for a hierarchy-enhancing job, such as a business executive?

Chris, a real estate agent who has a high SDO score

Sarah who recently graduated with her BA in communication

John, a recent graduate student with low SDO score

Tommy, who is passionate about equality and immigration policies

Erik has an entity theory of human behavior, and he is performing an X-probe task. According to research on attention and stereotyping, which of the following patterns of responses would we most expect:

Slower reaction time to the “X” that appears following stereotype-confirming information

Faster reaction time to the “X” that appears following stereotype-disconfirming information

Slower reaction time to the “X” that appears following stereotype-disconfirming information

B and C

Referring to John as “fairly smart” is an example of language while referring to his IQ score as an indication of his smartness is a/an _ measure.

Objective, Subjective

Within-category, Objective

Subjective, Objective

Cross-category, Objective

According to Hugenburg’s work on Cross Race Recognition Deficit, which of the statements is true?

One’s motivation to encode in-group and out- group members matters

People encode individuals differently depending on perceived group status

Social context in which individuals recognize others as ingroup/outgroup matters

All of the above

Which of the following is an example of subjective scale?

Likert-type scale ranging from very unpleasant to very pleasant

IQ scores

Timed exams/responses

None of the Above

After witnessing an event, exposure to misleading information about the event could result in memory distortion. This is known as:

Misinformation effect

Memory Implantation

Mistaken Identification

Biased memory

According to the study by Wells, removing the real suspect from the 6-person lineup leads to:

substantial increase of “none” option

picking a filler that looks most like the actual suspect

correctly decreasing false identification of others

correctly stating that the suspect is not in the line-up

Los Angeles Police Department is trying to improve their line-up procedures. Which of the following practices would benefit them?

Administering double-blind line ups

Adding more fillers to their line ups

Providing pre-line up instructions

All of the above

Anna was a witness to a crime that occurred at a party. Few days after the incident, the officers called her in to the station to identify the suspect. Which of the following examples is best for avoiding guessing bias?

Officers telling Anna to take her time after she picked a suspect from the photo lineup

Officers asking her “are you sure?” once she picks the suspect to allow her to make a confident response

Officers stating to Anna that the suspect may or may not be in the photo line up

Officers telling Anna who they think the suspect is and ask her to confirm it

Hugenberg’s research on schematic effects on categorization shows that:

Target prototypicality influences stereotype activation

People who are high in implicit prejudice are slower to categorize Black faces as happy

Racially ambiguous target faces tend to be categorized as White

A and B

Three days after witnessing a crime at a gas station, Christopher was called to the police station to identify the suspect from a lineup. While he recalled the suspect as an Asian man, he had a hard time identifying the suspect in the lineup and stated to one of the officers that “They all look the same”. Which of the following statements can explain his inability to identify the suspect?

While witnessing the crime, Christopher did not have enough time to study the suspect’s facial features carefully

Christopher cannot identify the suspect because the officers selected individuals for the lineup that share many similar characteristics

This can be due to cross race recognition deficit since we are more likely to recognize faces that belong to our own racial group than outgroups.

Christopher’s personal stereotypes toward Asian men is hindering his ability to make a correct identification.

John grew up in household where both of his parents served in the military. Growing up, his parents were very strict and set firm boundaries and rules that had to be followed. Particularly, John was taught to always obey law enforcement and to not question their authority. When John grew up and left for college, he seemed to clash with his classmates who believed in defunding the police and who also missed class to go to protests. He felt like his classmates were disrupting the peace and that they deserved to be arrested. Which of the following statements best describe John’s attitude and behavior toward his classmates?

John grew up in an Authoritarian household where obedience and respect for authority were the most important virtues for children to learn

John grew up in an Authoritarian household where he was taught that people who violate conventional standards must be punished

John grew up in a household where he was taught to believe that minorities did not deserve legal protection

Both A and B

In their study of judgments about group’s trait characteristics, Sherman, Klein, Laskey, and Wyer (1998), found that:

For groups described positively, judgments about the out-group were accomplished by retrieving from memory specific behaviors performed by group members.

For groups described positively, judgments about the in-group were accomplished by retrieving from memory specific behaviors performed by group members.

For groups described negatively, judgments about the out-group were accomplished by retrieving specific behaviors performed by group members.

Regardless of positive or negative traits, judgments about the out-group were accomplished by retrieving from memory specific behaviors performed by group members

According to research by Glick et al. (1997) and Rudman & Glick (1999), which of the following individuals is most likely to be penalized?

Sally, a highly agentic woman who is a CEO of a large company

Sarah, a friendly and competent woman who is a manager at a technology company

Brianne, an incompetent but friendly woman who is a preschool teacher

All of the above would be penalized

According to the study by Bodenhausen on stereotypical and counter-stereotypical behaviors, which of the following justifications are expected regarding Lamar (Black man) and John (White man) who assaulted a co-worker at their job?

Participants are more likely to indicate that Lamar assaulted the coworker because he is an angry and short-tempered man

Participants are equally likely to attribute Both Lamar and John’s behavior to the circumstance under which the assault happened

Participants are more likely to attribute John’s behavior to external factors such as him receiving bad news in the morning

Both A and C

According to the study by Sherman on source monitoring, which of the following is most likely to take place under a cognitive load?

When participants possess full processing capacity, they are less likely to rely on their stereotypes to aid in the judgment process.

When items are familiar and capacity is restricted, stereotypes are more likely to be used as memory cues

New information that has never been encountered by participants can produce source confusion

Both A and B

Which of the following is NOT an estimator variable?

Lighting when the crime took place

The distance from which the witness saw the perpetrator.

The degree of stress or trauma a witness experienced while seeing the perpetrator

Identification procedures such as photo lineups

Which of the following is FALSE regarding benevolent prejudice?

Benevolent prejudices are more difficult to change because they seem positive

Benevolent prejudice affords prejudiced individuals with moral credentials

Benevolent prejudice and hostile prejudice are slightly negatively correlated

Benevolent prejudice is insidious because the targets of such prejudices might buy into them

According to Biernat, why is it complicated to compare evaluations of men and women on leadership competence to each other?

There are different standards of comparison on leadership competence between men and women

We judge individual members of stereotyped groups on stereotyped dimensions with reference to within-category standards

Both of the above

None of the above

A doctor has been working long shifts and is sleep deprived. One night at work, she is ranting to her coworker and uses a racial slur. This is an example of:

Regressive prejudice

Aversive prejudice

Moral regression

Symbolic prejudice

Targets of envious prejudice are those who are seen as _ and __:

warm; competent

cold; competent

cold; incompetent

warm; incompetent

Which of the following statements is in line with Essentialist beliefs?

All Asian people look the same and share many similarities with each other

Hispanic and Black people are very similar to each other

Individual behaviors can distinguish a person from his/her group

People can choose to be a part of multiple social categories

People who score high on SDO scale are also more likely to score high on _

Empathy

Support for capitalism

Tolerance

Outgroup favoritism

Monin’s work on moral credentials shows that:

People who endorse egalitarian values are less likely to express aversive prejudice

Acting in a non-prejudiced manner can increase future prejudiced behavior

Feeling secure in one’s moral identity tends to produce unbiased behavior

A and C

Which of the following individuals is more likely to have a high score on Social Dominance Orientation scale?

Luke, who is a CEO of a financial company and is known as a “shark” for his competitiveness in the field

James who is from a middle-class family working as an electrician

Jamil, who is an international student from Pakistan

Shanice, who is a part time teacher and a mother of two

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